PgSQL to LDAP transition - Phase 1: Added LDAP support for member data.
authorMichael Spang <mspang@uwaterloo.ca>
Mon, 19 Feb 2007 00:46:15 +0000 (19:46 -0500)
committerMichael Spang <mspang@uwaterloo.ca>
Mon, 19 Feb 2007 02:50:35 +0000 (21:50 -0500)
This is the first major update for the PgSQL to LDAP transition. We will be
deprecating the members table in PostgreSQL and moving that information into
the LDAP directory.

With this commit, all newly created members will have their attributes added
to LDAP in addition to the members table in the database. The database is still
used as the canonical source of this information: the information in LDAP is
kept up-to-date but almost never referenced.

pylib/csc/adm/accounts.py
pylib/csc/adm/members.py
pylib/csc/apps/legacy/main.py
pylib/csc/backends/ldapi.py

index 288fc7c..26e5fff 100644 (file)
@@ -190,8 +190,15 @@ def create(username, name, minimum_id, maximum_id, home, password=None, descript
 
     ### User creation ###
 
-    # create the LDAP entry
-    ldap_connection.user_add(username, name, userid, gid, home, shell, gecos, description)
+    if not ldap_connection.user_lookup(username):
+
+        # create the LDAP entry
+        ldap_connection.account_add(username, name, userid, gid, home, shell, gecos, description)
+
+    else:
+
+        # add the required attribute to the LDAP entry
+        ldap_connection.member_add_account(username, userid, gid, home, shell, gecos)
 
     # create a user group if no other group was specified
     if not group:
@@ -257,7 +264,7 @@ def status(username):
     Returns: a boolean 2-tuple (exists, has_password)
     """
 
-    ldap_state = ldap_connection.user_lookup(username)
+    ldap_state = ldap_connection.account_lookup(username)
     krb_state = krb_connection.get_principal(username)
     return (ldap_state is not None, krb_state is not None)
 
@@ -786,9 +793,9 @@ def check_name_usage(name):
     """
 
     # see if user exists in LDAP
-    if ldap_connection.user_lookup(name):
+    if ldap_connection.account_lookup(name):
         raise NameConflict(name, "account", "LDAP")
-    
+
     # see if group exists in LDAP
     if ldap_connection.group_lookup(name):
         raise NameConflict(name, "group", "LDAP")
@@ -815,10 +822,10 @@ def check_name_usage(name):
 
 def check_account_status(username, require_ldap=True, require_krb=False):
     """Helper function to verify that an account exists."""
-    
-    if not connected(): 
+
+    if not connected():
         raise AccountException("Not connected to LDAP and Kerberos")
-    if require_ldap and not ldap_connection.user_lookup(username):
+    if require_ldap and not ldap_connection.account_lookup(username):
         raise NoSuchAccount(username, "LDAP")
     if require_krb and not krb_connection.get_principal(username):
         raise NoSuchAccount(username, "KRB")
index 63998fb..a9c3f62 100644 (file)
@@ -11,8 +11,9 @@ must also be moved into this module.
 """
 import re
 from csc.adm import terms
-from csc.backends import db
+from csc.backends import db, ldapi
 from csc.common import conf
+from csc.common.excep import InvalidArgument
 
 
 ### Configuration ###
@@ -25,7 +26,8 @@ def load_configuration():
     """Load Members Configuration"""
 
     string_fields = [ 'studentid_regex', 'realname_regex', 'server',
-            'database', 'user', 'password' ]
+            'database', 'user', 'password', 'server_url', 'users_base',
+            'groups_base', 'admin_bind_dn', 'admin_bind_pw' ]
 
     # read configuration file
     cfg_tmp = conf.read(CONFIG_FILE)
@@ -86,41 +88,46 @@ class NoSuchMember(MemberException):
 ### Connection Management ###
 
 # global database connection
-connection = db.DBConnection()
+db_connection = db.DBConnection()
+
+# global directory connection
+ldap_connection = ldapi.LDAPConnection()
 
 def connect():
     """Connect to PostgreSQL."""
-    
+
     load_configuration()
-    connection.connect(cfg['server'], cfg['database'])
-       
+    db_connection.connect(cfg['server'], cfg['database'])
+    ldap_connection.connect(cfg['server_url'], cfg['admin_bind_dn'], cfg['admin_bind_pw'], cfg['users_base'], cfg['groups_base'])
+
 
 def disconnect():
     """Disconnect from PostgreSQL."""
-    
-    connection.disconnect()
+
+    db_connection.disconnect()
+    ldap_connection.disconnect()
 
 
 def connected():
-    """Determine whether the connection has been established."""
+    """Determine whether the db_connection has been established."""
 
-    return connection.connected()
+    return db_connection.connected() and ldap_connection.connected()
 
 
 
 ### Member Table ###
 
-def new(realname, studentid=None, program=None, mtype='user', userid=None):
+def new(uid, realname, studentid=None, program=None, mtype='user'):
     """
     Registers a new CSC member. The member is added to the members table
     and registered for the current term.
 
     Parameters:
+        uid       - the initial user id
         realname  - the full real name of the member
         studentid - the student id number of the member
         program   - the program of study of the member
         mtype     - a string describing the type of member ('user', 'club')
-        userid    - the initial user id
 
     Returns: the memberid of the new member
 
@@ -135,7 +142,7 @@ def new(realname, studentid=None, program=None, mtype='user', userid=None):
     # blank attributes should be NULL
     if studentid == '': studentid = None
     if program == '': program = None
-    if userid == '': userid = None
+    if uid == '': uid = None
     if mtype == '': mtype = None
 
     # check the student id format
@@ -147,18 +154,33 @@ def new(realname, studentid=None, program=None, mtype='user', userid=None):
         raise InvalidRealName(realname)
 
     # check for duplicate student id
-    member = connection.select_member_by_studentid(studentid)
+    member = db_connection.select_member_by_studentid(studentid) or \
+            ldap_connection.member_search_studentid(studentid)
     if member:
         raise DuplicateStudentID(studentid)
 
-    # add the member
-    memberid = connection.insert_member(realname, studentid, program)
+    # check for duplicate userid
+    member = db_connection.select_member_by_userid(uid) or \
+            ldap_connection.user_lookup(uid)
+    if member:
+        raise InvalidArgument("uid", uid, "duplicate uid")
 
-    # register them for this term
-    connection.insert_term(memberid, terms.current())
+    # add the member to the database
+    memberid = db_connection.insert_member(realname, studentid, program, userid=uid)
 
-    # commit the transaction
-    connection.commit()
+    # add the member to the directory
+    ldap_connection.member_add(uid, realname, studentid, program)
+
+    # register them for this term in the database
+    db_connection.insert_term(memberid, terms.current())
+
+    # register them for this term in the directory
+    member = ldap_connection.member_lookup(uid)
+    member['term'] = [ terms.current() ]
+    ldap_connection.user_modify(uid, member)
+
+    # commit the database transaction
+    db_connection.commit()
 
     return memberid
 
@@ -177,7 +199,7 @@ def get(memberid):
              }
     """
 
-    return connection.select_member_by_id(memberid)
+    return db_connection.select_member_by_id(memberid)
 
 
 def get_userid(userid):
@@ -197,7 +219,7 @@ def get_userid(userid):
              }
     """
 
-    return connection.select_member_by_userid(userid)
+    return db_connection.select_member_by_userid(userid)
 
 
 def get_studentid(studentid):
@@ -217,7 +239,7 @@ def get_studentid(studentid):
              }
     """
 
-    return connection.select_member_by_studentid(studentid)
+    return db_connection.select_member_by_studentid(studentid)
 
 
 def list_term(term):
@@ -237,10 +259,10 @@ def list_term(term):
     """
 
     # retrieve a list of memberids in term
-    memberlist = connection.select_members_by_term(term)
+    memberlist = db_connection.select_members_by_term(term)
 
     return memberlist.values()
-        
+
 
 def list_name(name):
     """
@@ -259,7 +281,7 @@ def list_name(name):
     """
 
     # retrieve a list of memberids matching name
-    memberlist = connection.select_members_by_name(name)
+    memberlist = db_connection.select_members_by_name(name)
 
     return memberlist.values()
 
@@ -272,7 +294,7 @@ def list_all():
     """
 
     # retrieve a list of members
-    memberlist = connection.select_all_members()
+    memberlist = db_connection.select_all_members()
 
     return memberlist.values()
 
@@ -292,18 +314,23 @@ def delete(memberid):
     """
 
     # save member data
-    member = connection.select_member_by_id(memberid)
+    member = db_connection.select_member_by_id(memberid)
 
     # bail if not found
     if not member:
         raise NoSuchMember(memberid)
 
-    term_list = connection.select_terms(memberid)
+    term_list = db_connection.select_terms(memberid)
 
     # remove data from the db
-    connection.delete_term_all(memberid)
-    connection.delete_member(memberid)
-    connection.commit()
+    db_connection.delete_term_all(memberid)
+    db_connection.delete_member(memberid)
+    db_connection.commit()
+
+    # remove data from the directory
+    if member and member['userid']:
+        uid = member['userid']
+        ldap_connection.user_delete(uid)
 
     return (member, term_list)
 
@@ -334,7 +361,7 @@ def update(member):
             raise InvalidStudentID(studentid)
 
         # check for duplicate student id
-        dupmember = connection.select_member_by_studentid(studentid)
+        dupmember = db_connection.select_member_by_studentid(studentid)
         if dupmember:
             raise DuplicateStudentID(studentid)
 
@@ -346,12 +373,12 @@ def update(member):
     # see if member exists
     if not get(memberid):
         raise NoSuchMember(memberid)
-    
+
     # do the update
-    connection.update_member(member)
+    db_connection.update_member(member)
 
     # commit the transaction
-    connection.commit()
+    db_connection.commit()
 
 
 
@@ -376,16 +403,31 @@ def register(memberid, term_list):
     if type(term_list) in (str, unicode):
         term_list = [ term_list ]
 
+    ldap_member = None
+    db_member = get(memberid)
+    if db_member['userid']:
+        uid = db_member['userid']
+        ldap_member = ldap_connection.member_lookup(uid)
+        if ldap_member and 'term' not in ldap_member:
+            ldap_member['term'] = []
+
     for term in term_list:
-        
+
         # check term syntax
         if not re.match('^[wsf][0-9]{4}$', term):
             raise InvalidTerm(term)
-    
+
         # add term to database
-        connection.insert_term(memberid, term)
+        db_connection.insert_term(memberid, term)
+
+        # add the term to the directory
+        if ldap_member:
+            ldap_member['term'].append(term)
+
+    if ldap_member:
+        ldap_connection.user_modify(uid, ldap_member)
 
-    connection.commit()
+    db_connection.commit()
 
 
 def registered(memberid, term):
@@ -402,7 +444,7 @@ def registered(memberid, term):
     Example: registered(3349, "f2006") -> True
     """
 
-    return connection.select_term(memberid, term) is not None
+    return db_connection.select_term(memberid, term) is not None
 
 
 def member_terms(memberid):
@@ -418,7 +460,7 @@ def member_terms(memberid):
     Example: registered(0) -> 's1993'
     """
 
-    terms_list = connection.select_terms(memberid)
+    terms_list = db_connection.select_terms(memberid)
     terms_list.sort(terms.compare)
     return terms_list
 
@@ -432,18 +474,19 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
 
     # t=test m=member s=student u=updated
     tmname = 'Test Member'
+    tmuid = 'testmember'
     tmprogram = 'Metaphysics'
     tmsid = '00000000'
     tm2name = 'Test Member 2'
+    tm2uid = 'testmember2'
     tm2sid = '00000001'
     tm2uname = 'Test Member II'
     tm2usid = '00000002'
     tm2uprogram = 'Pseudoscience'
-    tm2uuserid = 'testmember'
 
-    tmdict = {'name': tmname, 'userid': None, 'program': tmprogram, 'type': 'user', 'studentid': tmsid }
-    tm2dict = {'name': tm2name, 'userid': None, 'program': None, 'type': 'user', 'studentid': tm2sid }
-    tm2udict = {'name': tm2uname, 'userid': tm2uuserid, 'program': tm2uprogram, 'type': 'user', 'studentid': tm2usid }
+    tmdict = {'name': tmname, 'userid': tmuid, 'program': tmprogram, 'type': 'user', 'studentid': tmsid }
+    tm2dict = {'name': tm2name, 'userid': tm2uid, 'program': None, 'type': 'user', 'studentid': tm2sid }
+    tm2udict = {'name': tm2uname, 'userid': tm2uid, 'program': tm2uprogram, 'type': 'user', 'studentid': tm2usid }
 
     thisterm = terms.current()
     nextterm = terms.next(thisterm)
@@ -464,8 +507,8 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
     if dmid: delete(dmid['memberid'])
 
     test(new)
-    tmid = new(tmname, tmsid, tmprogram)
-    tm2id = new(tm2name, tm2sid)
+    tmid = new(tmuid, tmname, tmsid, tmprogram)
+    tm2id = new(tm2uid, tm2name, tm2sid)
     success()
 
     tmdict['memberid'] = tmid
@@ -495,7 +538,7 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
     success()
 
     test(register)
-    register(tmid, terms.next(terms.current()))
+    register(tmid, nextterm)
     assert_equal(True, registered(tmid, nextterm))
     success()
 
@@ -517,7 +560,7 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
     success()
 
     test(get_userid)
-    assert_equal(tm2udict, get_userid(tm2uuserid))
+    assert_equal(tm2udict, get_userid(tm2uid))
     success()
 
     test(get_studentid)
index e9a463e..64b2d50 100644 (file)
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@ This frontend is poorly documented, deprecated, and undoubtedly full of bugs.
 import curses.ascii, re, os
 from helpers import menu, inputbox, msgbox, reset
 from csc.adm import accounts, members, terms
+from csc.common.excep import InvalidArgument
 
 # color of the ceo border
 BORDER_COLOR = curses.COLOR_RED
@@ -20,7 +21,7 @@ BORDER_COLOR = curses.COLOR_RED
 def action_new_member(wnd):
     """Interactively add a new member."""
 
-    studentid, program = None, ''
+    userid, studentid, program = '', None, ''
 
     # read the name
     prompt = "      Name: "
@@ -50,12 +51,21 @@ def action_new_member(wnd):
     if program is None or program.lower() == 'exit':
         return False
 
+    # read user id
+    prompt = "Userid:"
+    while userid == '':
+        userid = inputbox(wnd, prompt, 18)
+
+    # user abort
+    if userid is None or userid.lower() == 'exit':
+        return False
+
     # connect the members module to its backend if necessary
     if not members.connected(): members.connect()
 
     # attempt to create the member
     try:
-        memberid = members.new(realname, studentid, program)
+        memberid = members.new(userid, realname, studentid, program)
 
         msgbox(wnd, "Success! Your memberid is %s.  You are now registered\n"
                     % memberid + "for the " + terms.current() + " term.")
@@ -69,6 +79,12 @@ def action_new_member(wnd):
     except members.InvalidRealName:
         msgbox(wnd, 'Invalid real name: "%s"' % realname)
         return False
+    except InvalidArgument, e:
+        if e.argname == 'uid' and e.explanation == 'duplicate uid':
+            msgbox(wnd, 'A member with this user ID exists.')
+            return False
+        else:
+            raise
 
 
 def action_term_register(wnd):
@@ -196,7 +212,7 @@ def repair_account(wnd, memberid, userid):
         password = input_password(wnd)
         accounts.create_member(userid, password, member['name'], memberid)
         msgbox(wnd, "Account created (where the hell did it go, anyway?)\n"
-                "If you're homedir still exists, it will not be inaccessible to you,\n"
+                "If your homedir still exists, it will not be inaccessible to you,\n"
                 "please contact systems-committee@csclub.uwaterloo.ca to get this resolved.\n")
 
     elif not haspw:
@@ -267,7 +283,8 @@ def action_create_account(wnd):
         return False
 
     # member already has an account?
-    if member['userid']:
+    if not accounts.connected(): accounts.connect()
+    if member['userid'] and accounts.status(member['userid'])[0]:
 
         userid = member['userid']
         msgbox(wnd, "Member " + str(memberid) + " already has an account: " + member['userid'] + "\n"
@@ -278,6 +295,9 @@ def action_create_account(wnd):
         return False
 
 
+    if member['userid']:
+        userid = member['userid']
+
     # read user id
     prompt = "Userid:"
     while userid == '':
index c949e68..c246667 100644 (file)
@@ -98,7 +98,7 @@ class LDAPConnection(object):
 
     ### Helper Methods ###
 
-    def lookup(self, dn):
+    def lookup(self, dn, objectClass=None):
         """
         Helper method to retrieve the attributes of an entry.
 
@@ -113,7 +113,11 @@ class LDAPConnection(object):
 
         # search for the specified dn
         try:
-            matches = self.ldap.search_s(dn, ldap.SCOPE_BASE)
+            if objectClass:
+                search_filter = '(objectClass=%s)' % self.escape(objectClass)
+                matches = self.ldap.search_s(dn, ldap.SCOPE_BASE, search_filter)
+            else:
+                matches = self.ldap.search_s(dn, ldap.SCOPE_BASE)
         except ldap.NO_SUCH_OBJECT:
             return None
         except ldap.LDAPError, e:
@@ -122,109 +126,160 @@ class LDAPConnection(object):
         # this should never happen due to the nature of DNs
         if len(matches) > 1:
             raise LDAPException("duplicate dn in ldap: " + dn)
-        
+
+        # dn was found, but didn't match the objectClass filter
+        elif len(matches) < 1:
+            return None
+
         # return the attributes of the single successful match
-        else:
-            match = matches[0]
-            match_dn, match_attributes = match
-            return match_attributes
+        match = matches[0]
+        match_dn, match_attributes = match
+        return match_attributes
+
 
 
-    
     ### User-related Methods ###
 
-    def user_lookup(self, uid):
+    def user_lookup(self, uid, objectClass=None):
         """
         Retrieve the attributes of a user.
 
         Parameters:
-            uid - the UNIX username to look up
+            uid - the uid to look up
 
         Returns: attributes of user with uid
-
-        Example: connection.user_lookup('mspang') ->
-                     { 'uid': 'mspang', 'uidNumber': 21292 ...}
         """
 
         dn = 'uid=' + uid + ',' + self.user_base
-        return self.lookup(dn)
+        return self.lookup(dn, objectClass)
 
 
-    def user_search(self, search_filter):
+    def user_search(self, search_filter, params):
         """
-        Helper for user searches.
+        Search for users with a filter.
 
         Parameters:
             search_filter - LDAP filter string to match users against
 
-        Returns: the list of uids matched (usernames)
+        Returns: a dictionary mapping uids to attributes
         """
 
         if not self.connected(): raise LDAPException("Not connected!")
 
+        search_filter = search_filter % tuple(self.escape(x) for x in params)
+
         # search for entries that match the filter
         try:
             matches = self.ldap.search_s(self.user_base, ldap.SCOPE_SUBTREE, search_filter)
         except ldap.LDAPError, e:
             raise LDAPException("user search failed: %s" % e)
-        
-        # list for uids found
-        uids = []
-        
+
+        results = {}
         for match in matches:
-            dn, attributes = match
-            
-            # uid is a required attribute of posixAccount
-            if not attributes.has_key('uid'):
-                raise LDAPException(dn + ' (posixAccount) has no uid')
-            
-            # do not handle the case of multiple usernames in one entry (yet)
-            elif len(attributes['uid']) > 1:
-                raise LDAPException(dn + ' (posixAccount) has multiple uids')
-            
-            # append the sole uid of this match to the list
-            uids.append( attributes['uid'][0] )
+            dn, attrs = match
+            uid = attrs['uid'][0]
+            results[uid] = attrs
 
-        return uids
+        return results
+
+
+    def user_modify(self, uid, attrs):
+        """
+        Update user attributes in the directory.
+
+        Parameters:
+            uid   - username of the user to modify
+            attrs - dictionary as returned by user_lookup() with changes to make.
+                    omitted attributes are DELETED.
+
+        Example: user = user_lookup('mspang')
+                 user['uidNumber'] = [ '0' ]
+                 connection.user_modify('mspang', user)
+        """
+
+        # distinguished name of the entry to modify
+        dn = 'uid=' + uid + ',' + self.user_base
+
+        # retrieve current state of user
+        old_user = self.user_lookup(uid)
+
+        try:
+
+            # build list of modifications to make
+            changes = ldap.modlist.modifyModlist(old_user, attrs)
+
+            # apply changes
+            self.ldap.modify_s(dn, changes)
+
+        except ldap.LDAPError, e:
+            raise LDAPException("unable to modify: %s" % e)
+
+
+    def user_delete(self, uid):
+        """
+        Removes a user from the directory.
+
+        Example: connection.user_delete('mspang')
+        """
+
+        try:
+            dn = 'uid=' + uid + ',' + self.user_base
+            self.ldap.delete_s(dn)
+        except ldap.LDAPError, e:
+            raise LDAPException("unable to delete: %s" % e)
+
+
+
+    ### Account-related Methods ###
+
+    def account_lookup(self, uid):
+        """
+        Retrieve the attributes of an account.
+
+        Parameters:
+            uid - the uid to look up
+
+        Returns: attributes of user with uid
+        """
 
+        return self.user_lookup(uid, 'posixAccount')
 
-    def user_search_id(self, uidNumber):
+
+    def account_search_id(self, uidNumber):
         """
-        Retrieves a list of users with a certain UNIX uid number.
+        Retrieves a list of accounts with a certain UNIX uid number.
 
-        LDAP (or passwd for that matter) does not enforce any
-        restriction on the number of accounts that can have
-        a certain UID. Therefore this method returns a list of matches.
+        LDAP (or passwd for that matter) does not enforce any restriction on
+        the number of accounts that can have a certain UID number. Therefore
+        this method returns a list of matches.
 
         Parameters:
             uidNumber - the user id of the accounts desired
 
-        Returns: the list of uids matched (usernames)
+        Returns: a dictionary mapping uids to attributes
 
-        Example: connection.user_search_id(21292) -> ['mspang']
+        Example: connection.account_search_id(21292) -> {'mspang': { ... }}
         """
 
-        # search for posixAccount entries with the specified uidNumber
-        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=posixAccount)(uidNumber=%d))' % uidNumber
-        return self.user_search(search_filter)
+        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=posixAccount)(uidNumber=%s))'
+        return self.user_search(search_filter, [ uidNumber ])
 
 
-    def user_search_gid(self, gidNumber):
+    def account_search_gid(self, gidNumber):
         """
-        Retrieves a list of users with a certain UNIX gid
+        Retrieves a list of accounts with a certain UNIX gid
         number (search by default group).
 
-        Returns: the list of uids matched (usernames)
+        Returns: a dictionary mapping uids to attributes
         """
 
-        # search for posixAccount entries with the specified gidNumber
-        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=posixAccount)(gidNumber=%d))' % gidNumber
-        return self.user_search(search_filter)
+        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=posixAccount)(gidNumber=%s))'
+        return self.user_search(search_filter, [ gidNumber ])
 
 
-    def user_add(self, uid, cn, uidNumber, gidNumber, homeDirectory, loginShell=None, gecos=None, description=None):
+    def account_add(self, uid, cn, uidNumber, gidNumber, homeDirectory, loginShell=None, gecos=None, description=None, update=False):
         """
-        Adds a user to the directory.
+        Adds a user account to the directory.
 
         Parameters:
             uid           - the UNIX username for the account
@@ -235,6 +290,7 @@ class LDAPConnection(object):
             loginShell    - login shell for the user
             gecos         - comment field (usually stores name etc)
             description   - description field (optional and unimportant)
+            update        - if True, will update existing entries
 
         Example: connection.user_add('mspang', 'Michael Spang',
                      21292, 100, '/users/mspang', '/bin/bash',
@@ -254,67 +310,33 @@ class LDAPConnection(object):
             'homeDirectory': [ homeDirectory ],
             'gecos': [ gecos ],
         }
-        
+
         if loginShell:
-            attrs['loginShell'] = loginShell
+            attrs['loginShell'] = [ loginShell ]
         if description:
             attrs['description'] = [ description ]
 
         try:
-            modlist = ldap.modlist.addModlist(attrs)
-            self.ldap.add_s(dn, modlist)
-        except ldap.LDAPError, e:
-            raise LDAPException("unable to add: %s" % e)
 
+            old_entry = self.user_lookup(uid)
+            if old_entry and 'posixAccount' not in old_entry['objectClass'] and update:
 
-    def user_modify(self, uid, attrs):
-        """
-        Update user attributes in the directory.
+                attrs.update(old_entry)
+                attrs['objectClass'] = list(attrs['objectClass'])
+                attrs['objectClass'].append('posixAccount')
+                if not 'shadowAccount' in attrs['objectClass']:
+                    attrs['objectClass'].append('shadowAccount')
 
-        Parameters:
-            uid   - username of the user to modify
-            attrs - dictionary as returned by user_lookup() with changes to make.
-                    omitted attributes are DELETED.
-
-        Example: user = user_lookup('mspang')
-                 user['uidNumber'] = [ '0' ]
-                 connection.user_modify('mspang', user)
-        """
+                modlist = ldap.modlist.modifyModlist(old_entry, attrs)
+                self.ldap.modify_s(dn, modlist)
 
-        if not self.connected(): raise LDAPException("Not connected!")
+            else:
 
-        # distinguished name of the entry to modify
-        dn = 'uid=' + uid + ',' + self.user_base
-
-        # retrieve current state of user
-        old_user = self.user_lookup(uid)
-
-        try:
-            
-            # build list of modifications to make
-            changes = ldap.modlist.modifyModlist(old_user, attrs)
-
-            # apply changes
-            self.ldap.modify_s(dn, changes)
+                modlist = ldap.modlist.addModlist(attrs)
+                self.ldap.add_s(dn, modlist)
 
         except ldap.LDAPError, e:
-            raise LDAPException("unable to modify: %s" % e)
-
-
-    def user_delete(self, uid):
-        """
-        Removes a user from the directory.
-
-        Example: connection.user_delete('mspang')
-        """
-
-        if not self.connected(): raise LDAPException("Not connected!")
-
-        try:
-            dn = 'uid=' + uid + ',' + self.user_base
-            self.ldap.delete_s(dn)
-        except ldap.LDAPError, e:
-            raise LDAPException("unable to delete: %s" % e)
+            raise LDAPException("unable to add: %s" % e)
 
 
 
@@ -355,27 +377,19 @@ class LDAPConnection(object):
         try:
             search_filter = '(&(objectClass=posixGroup)(gidNumber=%d))' % gidNumber
             matches = self.ldap.search_s(self.group_base, ldap.SCOPE_SUBTREE, search_filter)
-        except ldap.LDAPError,:
+        except ldap.LDAPError, e:
             raise LDAPException("group search failed: %s" % e)
 
         # list for groups found
         group_cns = []
 
+        results = {}
         for match in matches:
-            dn, attributes = match
-
-            # cn is a required attribute of posixGroup
-            if not attributes.has_key('cn'):
-                raise LDAPException(dn + ' (posixGroup) has no cn')
-
-            # do not handle the case of multiple cns for one group (yet)
-            elif len(attributes['cn']) > 1:
-                raise LDAPException(dn + ' (posixGroup) has multiple cns')
+            dn, attrs = match
+            uid = attrs['cn'][0]
+            results[uid] = attrs
 
-            # append the sole uid of this match to the list
-            group_cns.append( attributes['cn'][0] )
-
-        return group_cns
+        return results
 
 
     def group_add(self, cn, gidNumber, description=None):
@@ -457,8 +471,129 @@ class LDAPConnection(object):
             raise LDAPException("unable to delete group: %s" % e)
 
 
+
+    ### Member-related Methods ###
+
+    def member_lookup(self, uid):
+        """
+        Retrieve the attributes of a member. This method will only return
+        results that have the objectClass 'member'.
+
+        Parameters:
+            uid - the username to look up
+
+        Returns: attributes of member with uid
+
+        Example: connection.member_lookup('mspang') ->
+                     { 'uid': 'mspang', 'uidNumber': 21292 ...}
+        """
+
+        if not self.connected(): raise LDAPException("Not connected!")
+
+        dn = 'uid=' + uid + ',' + self.user_base
+        return self.lookup(dn, 'member')
+
+
+    def member_search_studentid(self, studentid):
+        """
+        Retrieves a list of members with a certain studentid.
+
+        Returns: a dictionary mapping uids to attributes
+        """
+
+        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=member)(studentid=%s))'
+        return self.user_search(search_filter, [ studentid ] )
+
+
+    def member_search_name(self, name):
+        """
+        Retrieves a list of members with the specified name (fuzzy).
+
+        Returns: a dictionary mapping uids to attributes
+        """
+
+        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=member)(cn~=%s))'
+        return self.user_search(search_filter, [ name ] )
+
+
+    def member_search_term(self, term):
+        """
+        Retrieves a list of members who were registered in a certain term.
+
+        Returns: a dictionary mapping uids to attributes
+        """
+
+        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=member)(term=%s))'
+        return self.user_search(search_filter, [ term ])
+
+
+    def member_search_program(self, program):
+        """
+        Retrieves a list of members in a certain program (fuzzy).
+
+        Returns: a dictionary mapping uids to attributes
+        """
+
+        search_filter = '(&(objectClass=member)(program~=%s))'
+        return self.user_search(search_filter, [ program ])
+
+
+    def member_add(self, uid, cn, studentid, program=None, description=None):
+        """
+        Adds a member to the directory.
+
+        Parameters:
+            uid           - the UNIX username for the member
+            cn            - the real name of the member
+            studentid     - the member's student ID number
+            program       - the member's program of study
+            description   - a description for the entry
+        """
+
+        dn = 'uid=' + uid + ',' + self.user_base
+        attrs = {
+            'objectClass': [ 'top', 'account', 'member' ],
+            'uid': [ uid ],
+            'cn': [ cn ],
+            'studentid': [ studentid ],
+        }
+
+        if program:
+            attrs['program'] = [ program ]
+        if description:
+            attrs['description'] = [ description ]
+
+        try:
+            modlist = ldap.modlist.addModlist(attrs)
+            self.ldap.add_s(dn, modlist)
+        except ldap.LDAPError, e:
+            raise LDAPException("unable to add: %s" % e)
+
+
+    def member_add_account(self, uid, uidNumber, gidNumber, homeDirectory, loginShell=None, gecos=None):
+        """
+        Adds login privileges to a member.
+        """
+
+        return self.account_add(uid, None, uidNumber, gidNumber, homeDirectory, loginShell, gecos, None, True)
+
+
+
     ### Miscellaneous Methods ###
 
+    def escape(self, value):
+        """
+        Escapes special characters in a value so that it may be safely inserted
+        into an LDAP search filter.
+        """
+
+        value = str(value)
+        value = value.replace('\\', '\\5c').replace('*', '\\2a')
+        value = value.replace('(', '\\28').replace(')', '\\29')
+        value = value.replace('\x00', '\\00')
+        return value
+
+
     def used_uids(self, minimum=None, maximum=None):
         """
         Compiles a list of used UIDs in a range.
@@ -543,9 +678,17 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
     tushell = '/bin/false'
     tugecos = 'Test User,,,'
     tgname = 'testgroup'
+    tmname = 'testmember'
+    tmrname = 'Test Member'
+    tmstudentid = '99999999'
+    tmprogram = 'UBW'
+    tmdesc = 'Test Description'
     cushell = '/bin/true'
     cuhome = '/home/changed'
     curname = 'Test Modified User'
+    cmhome = '/home/testmember'
+    cmshell = '/bin/false'
+    cmgecos = 'Test Member,,,'
 
     test(LDAPConnection)
     connection = LDAPConnection()
@@ -563,6 +706,7 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
 
     try:
         connection.user_delete(tuname)
+        connection.user_delete(tmname)
         connection.group_delete(tgname)
     except LDAPException:
         pass
@@ -596,8 +740,20 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
             'cn': [ turname ]
             }
 
-    test(LDAPConnection.user_add)
-    connection.user_add(tuname, turname, tuuid, tugid, tuhome, tushell, tugecos)
+    test(LDAPConnection.account_add)
+    connection.account_add(tuname, turname, tuuid, tugid, tuhome, tushell, tugecos)
+    success()
+
+    emdata = {
+            'uid': [ tmname ],
+            'cn': [ tmrname ],
+            'studentid': [ tmstudentid ],
+            'program': [ tmprogram ],
+            'description': [ tmdesc ],
+    }
+
+    test(LDAPConnection.member_add)
+    connection.member_add(tmname, tmrname, tmstudentid, tmprogram, tmdesc)
     success()
 
     tggid = unusedids.pop()
@@ -610,41 +766,95 @@ if __name__ == '__main__':
     connection.group_add(tgname, tggid)
     success()
 
+    test(LDAPConnection.account_lookup)
+    udata = connection.account_lookup(tuname)
+    if udata: del udata['objectClass']
+    assert_equal(eudata, udata)
+    success()
+
+    test(LDAPConnection.member_lookup)
+    mdata = connection.member_lookup(tmname)
+    if mdata: del mdata['objectClass']
+    assert_equal(emdata, mdata)
+    success()
+
     test(LDAPConnection.user_lookup)
     udata = connection.user_lookup(tuname)
-    del udata['objectClass']
+    mdata = connection.user_lookup(tmname)
+    if udata: del udata['objectClass']
+    if mdata: del mdata['objectClass']
     assert_equal(eudata, udata)
+    assert_equal(emdata, mdata)
     success()
 
     test(LDAPConnection.group_lookup)
     gdata = connection.group_lookup(tgname)
-    del gdata['objectClass']
+    if gdata: del gdata['objectClass']
     assert_equal(egdata, gdata)
     success()
 
-    test(LDAPConnection.user_search_id)
+    test(LDAPConnection.account_search_id)
     eulist = [ tuname ]
-    ulist = connection.user_search_id(tuuid)
+    ulist = connection.account_search_id(tuuid).keys()
     assert_equal(eulist, ulist)
     success()
 
-    test(LDAPConnection.user_search_gid)
-    ulist = connection.user_search_gid(tugid)
+    test(LDAPConnection.account_search_gid)
+    ulist = connection.account_search_gid(tugid)
     if tuname not in ulist:
-        fail("(%s) not in (%s)" % (tuname, ulist))
+        fail("%s not in %s" % (tuname, ulist))
+    success()
+
+    test(LDAPConnection.member_search_studentid)
+    mlist = connection.member_search_studentid(tmstudentid).keys()
+    emlist = [ tmname ]
+    assert_equal(emlist, mlist)
+    success()
+
+    test(LDAPConnection.member_search_name)
+    mlist = connection.member_search_name(tmrname)
+    if tmname not in mlist:
+        fail("%s not in %s" % (tmname, mlist))
     success()
 
-    ecudata = connection.user_lookup(tuname)
+    test(LDAPConnection.member_search_program)
+    mlist = connection.member_search_program(tmprogram)
+    if tmname not in mlist:
+        fail("%s not in %s" % (tmname, mlist))
+    success()
+
+    test(LDAPConnection.group_search_id)
+    glist = connection.group_search_id(tggid).keys()
+    eglist = [ tgname ]
+    assert_equal(eglist, glist)
+    success()
+
+    ecudata = connection.account_lookup(tuname)
     ecudata['loginShell'] = [ cushell ]
     ecudata['homeDirectory'] = [ cuhome ]
     ecudata['cn'] = [ curname ]
 
     test(LDAPConnection.user_modify)
     connection.user_modify(tuname, ecudata)
-    cudata = connection.user_lookup(tuname)
+    cudata = connection.account_lookup(tuname)
     assert_equal(ecudata, cudata)
     success()
 
+    tmuid = unusedids.pop()
+    tmgid = unusedids.pop()
+    emadata = emdata.copy()
+    emadata.update({
+            'loginShell': [ cmshell ],
+            'uidNumber': [ str(tmuid) ],
+            'gidNumber': [ str(tmgid) ],
+            'gecos': [ cmgecos ],
+            'homeDirectory': [ cmhome ],
+            })
+
+    test(LDAPConnection.member_add_account)
+    connection.member_add_account(tmname, tmuid, tmuid, cmhome, cmshell, cmgecos)
+    success()
+
     ecgdata = connection.group_lookup(tgname)
     ecgdata['memberUid'] = [ tuname ]